Expectancy Theory [...]

Expectancy theory is a theory that attempts to explain how environment influences motivation. The fundamental understanding is that the influence of the environment is multiplicative, not additive, meaning that weak links in the chain cannot always be compensated by stronger elements.

Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence

  1. Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)
  2. Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O)
  3. Valence: V(R) Outcome → Reward

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